I recently finished reading Richard Beck's 2015 book We Believe the Children: A Moral Panic in the 1980s. Beck chronicles the satanic ritual abuse cases brought against family members and daycare center workers; scandals that involved children claiming to have been forced to make pornographic films in other cities, kill all classroom pets, dig up graves, and being sexually abused in satanic rituals. Beck tracks the ensuing panic throughout the country and the involvement of law enforcement, doctors, psychologists, and schools in spreading the beliefs that fueled the mass hysteria, including the doctrines of the infallibility of children's testimony, multiple personality disorder and recovered memories. He shows how evidence and science were disregarded, replaced instead by the rhetoric of true believers in these shocking tales of abuse.
I was reminded, on almost every page, of the way transgender ideology has swept through families, psychology, medicine, the legal system, schools, and other institutions without regard to evidence, logic, or negative outcomes. In both cases, there is some possible truth at the bottom on which a house of cards can be built. Certainly there are children who have been sexually abused and adults whose lives have been deeply affected by a history of childhood sexual abuse. Likewise, there are children and adults who are uncomfortable with their sexuality and the constraints of gender norms and who suffer various forms of dysphoria. But, these known facts cannot account for the amazing proliferation of symptoms and beliefs that constitute a mass hysteria. I think it worthwhile to remind ourselves of how these mass hysterias have manifested themselves in the past and still are working today. I will go through some of the topics Beck covers that have parallels in the current spread of transgender ideology and practice. Of course, the two situations have important differences, but I am focusing here on the similarities. Page numbers in parentheses are from the first edition Beck, 2015.
Adults influencing children in order to get them to agree to the narrative the adults are seeking and/or coming to support narratives of which they were initially skeptical
This was a major feature of the daycare abuse scandals. Police, therapists, and parents interviewed children as young as 3 for hours, often telling them that they already knew what had happened, until the child, who had initially denied that he or she had experienced or witnessed abuse, came up with a story of abuse at daycare or at the hands of relatives or friends. Then they were made to repeat these stories, elaborate on them, and have them reinforced and solidified in their minds. (see Introduction and many other examples throughout the book).
Similarly, doctors like Olson-Kennedy has been recorded giving an account of using this technique on a child who did not initially agree that she was really a boy. Laws have been passed in many states that promote transgender identities in young people by making it illegal for psychologists to do anything but affirm and support a transgender identity, even when symptoms may not suggest that this is the right diagnosis. It is rare to find anyone whose trans identity follows the "classic" narrative so often repeated in the press in which a child spontaneously claims a feeling of being born in the wrong body, insisting for many years that he or she is really the opposite sex with no prompting from parents, social media, friends, teachers, psychologists or other authority figures. Although a few of these "classic" cases exist, children who are gender stereotype non-conforming are frequent targets for transitioning by parents or led to believe by teachers and peers, that their gender stereotype non-conformity is necessarily a sign that they are "really" the opposite sex. Here is a discussion of this phenomenon from an LGB perspective. In adolescents and young adults, it is often a case of social contagion, ideological belief, or a case in which clear symptoms of depression, trauma, or schizophrenia are fit into a transgender framework. This study of female detrransitioners gives a good overview of the causes of transition.
During the sexual abuse scandals, children's sexual abuse narratives were strengthened by sending them to retreats such as Heart to Heart. At this retreat, children did not need to bring up sexual abuse themselves; it was introduced by a charismatic psychic who had a vision of an abused girl. (P. 184). As Beck notes, the narratives of abuse were drawn out of the children by intensive questioning by authority figures, but these abuse narratives could not have solidified without the support of parents "who do the crucial work of reinforcing those allegations in their well-intentioned efforts to be supportive." (p. 204).
Likewise, kids who have been identified as transgender have their identities reinforced by sending them to camps such as Rainbow Day Camp where they can go to be together and be affirmed in their transgender identities and narratives along with their parents.
It was not just the children who eventually gave in and told stories of ritual abuse. Adults who were accused of sexually abusing children often ended up making false confessions in order to support the narratives of the children, even their own children. Paul Ingram, a police officer who had gone through sexual abuse training became caught up in allegation of abuse of his children. He was well primed by his fellow police officers and his own beliefs to confess yet said at one point "Boy, it's almost like I'm making it up, but I'm not". His allegations against himself got more and more bizarre and included satanic ritual abuse and many murders (p. 188-189). Even when confronted later with evidence that his confessions were false, Paul Ingram maintained that they were true. Beck comments that the false beliefs about himself that Ingram generated "at great personal cost" would have been hard to relinquish along with the benefits. "It allowed him to say and believe that his daughters always told the truth no matter how crazy their stories became" (p. 191).
I believe there is a similar dynamic going on between parents and their transgender children. In order to justify the diagnosis and treatment, stories are told by parents about their kids' play habits, clothing choices, hair preferences, and statements about their preferred sex. The narratives are remarkably similar and often feature tropes such as the little boy trying to cut off his penis with scissors, though I have never seen an account that resulted in a visit to an emergency room. Parent narratives have the parent always walking in just on time to prevent harm, the realization that their son is transgender and that they must start him on the road to sex reassignment. There are many such stories; you can read some here, here, and here. In a similar way to the child sexual abuse scandals, parents, teachers, and psychologists seek to make the children's statements fit a prefabricated narrative. The children are rewarded when they comply with much more care and attention from parents and other adults. The children in the ritual abuse scandals became symbols of the failure of society to protect them and became "special" children who would now require a lifetime of special psychological care and attention to deal with their trauma.
Parents are coerced into supporting the transgender child narrative with assurances that their child will kill herself if she is not immediately transitioned and the narrative of the heroic care that such a special child will require from her parents. The suicide narrative appears in Transgender Support organizations and from the psychological community. Parents help spread the panic by falsely reporting suicides, like the viral thread claiming 8 transgender child suicides and one on life support after Donald Trump's election. Once parents embark on the process of transitioning their children, a process that involves changing the way they are dressed, their name, and their pronouns, as well as chemical sterilization, surgeries to amputate healthy sex organs, and a lifelong regimen of steroid hormones, it is certainly in the parents' interest to be the most determined cheerleaders for the truth of this narrative, as the alternative, that they have had their children chemically sterilized, their sexual parts amputated, and administered dangerous drugs in service of a fantasy, would be just too painful.
Children, Parents, and Therapists Go From Ordinary to Heroic
Beck writes of the parents at McMartin School in Manhattan Beach, CA "The case offered mothers....an opportunity for personal and political transformation, a chance to become fiery activists....More generally, McMartin lent a sort of heroic glow to the very idea of parenting..." One mother is quoted as saying "We have learned that there is no such thing as too much parental love and reassurance to a child who has been molested" (p. 96). Of course, these children had not actually been molested.
Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) became a popular diagnosis. This allowed adults to suddenly remember having been sexually abused as children and gave these adults a heroic, survivor narrative. It gave "victims" an identity that defined them and gave them the life work of recovering from these newly remembered traumas (P. 217). After discovering through recovered memories that they had been abused, life became a series of crises that could go on for ten years and more as they went through prescribed stages to become whole and healthy (p. 218). The book The Courage to Heal gave victims, therapists, social workers and others invested in recovered memories of sexual abuse a refutation proof narrative. "No one fantasizes abuse...Believe the survivor....You must believe that your client was sexually abused, even if she sometimes doubts it herself....Be willing to believe the unbelievable." (p. 219).
Psychologists got to share in these dramas as well. "Like their patients, therapists found the high drama of recovered memory work intoxicating....the outlaw status of their project held at a wary arm's length by psychiatry, until all of sudden it wasn't also made it easy for therapists to think of themselves along the lines of nineteenth-century psychiatric pioneers whose genius would eventually induce an awed respect in society at large (p. 229).
The heroic narrative is also central to people who transition and their parents. There are dozens of TED talks, for instance, that all send the parental message of loss, love and overcoming, like this one. Transition narratives include years of suffering, most often from an unknown cause, until suddenly a sufferer learns about transgenderism and all the pieces fall into place. The person now knows that their discomfort and unhappiness with their lives comes from being born in the wrong body and they can become whole and healthy by transitioning. This process is heroic as it involves all sorts of physical pain and risk from surgery and drugs, it involves confrontations with family and friends who may be skeptical, it involves bringing lawsuits to force at least the semblance of belief in the transgender ideological position in schools and work places. The process of becoming who "they really are" can go on for decades as they go through the stages of changing names, pronouns, official records, learning to act feminine or masculine, and of course seeing the effects of the steroid hormones and the many surgeries that are needed to finally be able to "pass" as the opposite sex. There are legions of Facebook pages and other social media in which people document all the steps of their transitions, their goals, their successes and setbacks as they try to achieve these goals and there are many Internet sites telling people what these goals should look like. Here is one such Transition Roadmap and Time Table.
In the field of child sex abuse, there was the Pre-school Age Molested Children's Professional Group (p. 40) which spread the sex abuse narrative. In the case of ritual abuse the first conference "Day Care Center and Satanic Cult Sexual Exploitation of Children" was organized by the FBI in 1985. Once people came together "a scattered collection of rumors took on an official institutional reality that it never would have acquired without the FBI's help". Lists of ritualistic indicators were distributed. "In classic paranoid style, these lists made the ordinary ("singing", "ropes", "jewelry") ominous through cataloguing and classification." (P.121). The FBI started doing trainings and handing out credentials which helped validate local police's belief in ritual abuse (p.123).
Likewise, "....the professionalization of the Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) field helped to make therapist's beliefs more durable". Peer review made it possible for MPD advocates to create an echo chamber in which their beliefs were validated.The people and organizations who support the conferences mentioned above are all making their careers on the identifying and transitioning an ever growing number of people and are focusing on acquiring younger and younger patients, so that children as young as two (and their parents) are brought into the transgender fold. For instance, at the conference "Clinical Essentials for Increased Understanding of the Diverse Transgender Community" in 2016, parents were told by a physician that their pre-verbal children are trying to communicate that they are transgender. Evidence includes little girls taking barrettes out of their hair and little boys unsnapping their onesies.
In a similar way, transgender ideology and practice has been greatly amplified by the many groups formed and conferences held where the transgender orthodoxy is spread and affirmed. With almost no good research to support the definition and diagnosis of gender dysphoria, no good research on the drugs and surgeries used for the purpose of medical transition, and no long term studies of psychological outcomes for those who medically transitioned as opposed to those who chose not to, belief without knowledge is what is being transmitted through the transgender organizations and conferences. WPATH is a leading organization which holds conferences and accredits transgender practitioners. As with MPD patients and their sexual abuse narratives, the lack of any clear definitions has led to a slippery slope of medical treatment for sex reassignment to medical treatment for any kind of variant gender identity or body dysphoria as can be seen in these analyses of the conference held in 2017. Conferences are monitored to make sure that no alternatives to the reigning narratives are presented. For instance, The 2017 Philly Trans Health Conference initially accepted panels on detransition and alternative ways to treat dysphoria, but cancelled these sessions two weeks before the conference citing terrorist threats as their reason, but later also saying that only people who have pass ideological muster can present.
Many professionals made their careers by first creating the sexual abuse scandals and then becoming part of the "solution". Beck's chapter 3 deals with the zeal of prosecuting attorneys who bent all rules of common sense and evidence. They succeeded in destroying families as children were taken from accused parents and placed in foster care. These children were interviewed constantly until they broke down and began to tell the stories that prosecutors wanted to hear. Many children later recanted their false testimony. One child said "I figured I'd never be able to go home now. I mean I'd just called my parents everything from sexual abusers to murderers, I mean it wasn't real, it was like being in a movie, it wasn't real" (p. 90).Janet Reno made her career prosecuting a case against a couple in Miami who ran a daycare center. The whole abuse narrative had worked its way into law enforcement, science, medical and psychological practice by this time. "The speed and efficiency with which Janet Reno was able to obtain her convictions indicated just how much the legal, medical, and psychiatric professions had learned, how enthusiastically they incorporated what had recently been fringe ideas as part of standard procedure" (p. 145).
The Psychologists and Doctors
One important factor in the growth of the sexual abuse scandals was the "discovery" that adults did not consciously remember abuse. Multiple Personality Disorder filled that gap by positing that people could have multiple personalities and only one of them, often deeply hidden, would have knowledge of the abuse. MPD was first listed in the DSM-III. This allowed for the founding of The International Society for the Study of Multiple Personality and Dissociation" which "set out to lend a credentialed air, if not actual credentials to its members." Soon there were journals and special clinics at medical centers to treat patients with MPD (p. 127). Psychologists were soon finding patients with ever more personalities who described increasingly bizarre childhood traumas.
"The revised DSM-III showed just how far MPD had come." MPD became more prominent and more exciting with therapists discovering not just two but even over 100 personalities in a single person. It was also linked more absolutely with childhood sexual abuse. (p. 129).
"That the "true believers, as they were sometimes called, remained at the center of the MPD movement for so long makes little sense from an academic perspective; medicine is supposed to test new theories and dismiss those that don't make a passing grade, and MPD could have been dismissed rather easily. Medicine, however, is also a profession with political interests and considerations like any other..."(p. 130). The variations and changes in the terms "dissociation" and "repression" made it tricky to determine the scientific validity of MPD (p. 225).
The use of unverified medical theories to prosecute cases of sexual abuse was rampant. Without any control group, appearances of children's anuses and hymens and other physical signs were declared evidence of sexual abuse. Doctors who had done actual research on the variation in children's genitals were excluded from testifying at trial (p. 202).
Clinics opened across the country treating MPD, making certain that patients were dependent and in contact with the therapists and that patients were constantly in contact with each other. Patients came to see themselves as betrayed by their families and created surrogate families of those like themselves who were seen as the only ones they could trust (p. 223).
Research that makes little sense or isn't really relevant to the issue is cited again and again as evidence for MPD and its symptoms. Research on recovery of memories of childhood events could not be replicated and were arbitrary hypotheses meant to support a given thesis (p. 226-228).
Checklists of symptoms that indicated whether people might have a repressed memory of abuse made everyone a potential patient, helping to draw people in. Such lists include "an interest in religions, preference for baggy clothing, promiscuity, celibacy, workaholism, breast lumps, trouble sleeping, fear of closets, fear of coffins, alertness, vagueness, gambling, etc. etc. (p. 231).
The example of Loni, a patient who became totally dependent on her therapist and her narrative of MPD and sexual abuse, who realized during a period away from her therapist that she did not really have MPD, is indicative of the need for therapists and patients to be in constant contact in order to sustain these narratives (p. 235).
This Episode of This American Life from 2002 "An Epidemic Created By Doctors" documents a patient who had, under the influence of her therapist, come to believe she had been abused by her father, the destruction of the father's career and of her family, and her eventual realization that these recovered memories were false. Her father is also interviewed. There is also an interview with a (different) therapist who had been trained in helping patients recover memories who eventually came to the conclusion that she had been complicit in the recovery of false memories. Both the patient and the therapist interviewed here realized the harm they had caused to families.
Those who have followed the rise of transgender ideology and practice will recognize many parallels with the rise of MPD that Beck documents. Clinics are opening all over the country and the world to diagnose and treat gender dysphoria. The number of clinics and the number of diagnoses has gone up exponentially, with a 1,000% rise in transgender diagnoses in the UK in just five years, and over 40 clinics in the United States dedicated to gender transition services, most opening in the past five years. Cross sex hormones can be accessed with only self diagnosis much more widely, for instance Planned Parenthood has become the major provider in the United States.
Why has a formerly rare condition become so much more common? Why have the criteria by which sufferers are diagnosed continued to change so rapidly? No longer does a person need to spontaneously announce at a very young age that they are "really" the opposite sex and persist in that belief into adulthood and go through several years of therapy and live as the opposite sex for an extended period before receiving sex reassignment surgery. Now, there are no requirements, no evaluation, no waiting period--all these are denigrated as "gate keeping" and professionals are expected to just accept whatever a patient says at face value and provide the treatment that is asked for. Now, a person's feeling of their gender is seen as both fixed and immutable, such that a two year old is seen as having a fixed gender identity. Assertions about the essential quality of gender identity exist side-by-side with assertions that gender identity is changeable from day to day. A recent Internet post reads "....when I'm male, I go by Steve. When I'm female, I go by Amy. When I'm neither or both, I gov by Amy-Steve...." There are over one hundred gender identities listed on Genderfluid Support. and doctors who before were treating people who felt like they were the opposite sex. Doctors like Olson-Kennedy will provide drugs and surgeries for any identity they are presented with, as people go on their "gender journeys" as this excerpt from the 2017 UPATH conference shows. Not only are there over one hundred gender identities, there is also the new phenomenon of adolescent girls becoming transgender in a group, so a group of four girlfriends suddenly are a group of four boyfriends. I've talked with a parent in my community about a parallel situation to the one reported in the letter documented above. This proliferation of genders and of diagnoses and treatments really should raise some red flags, as they are increasingly in the realm of the absurd.
Do people who have sex reassignment surgeries and hormone treatments to change their body so that it corresponds to the "real" gender in their minds then go on to live happy lives? Some seem to. However, these treatments often do not lead to the "cure" that was promised. Even after years of drugs and surgery, patients may remain unsatisfied. One transwoman later had their nose and ears amputated. People who are fully supported by family and friends still go on to commit suicide, indicating that likely there were undiagnosed and unexplored mental health issues. You can read some of these stories here, here, and here.
Many people have changed their minds about their diagnoses, gender identity ideology, and their own transitions. Such a change would be impossible under the theory that biological sex is a social construct and gender identity is an immutable aspect of the brain. Those who detransition frequently speak of other conditions that they now think motivated their desire to transition. What I Needed: An Open Letter to Therapists From A Detrasnsitioner, gives a good idea of how therapists can fail patients who present with self diagnosed gender identities. This survey of 211 detransitioners gives a good overview of the experience of females who transitioned and later re-identified as female. Detransitioners often come to believe that transgender ideology is a cult. Discussion of transition regret, of people who are happy that they did not go through medical transition and no longer identify as transgender, and of detransition is actively suppressed by transgender activists and ignored by psychologists, and surgeons. Two scheduled panels at the recent Philly Trans Health Conference that dealt with detransition and alternative way to handle gender dysphoria were cancelled at the last minute under pressure from transgender activists. Here is a report on what happened by one of the presenters who was banned.
None of this has been taken seriously by the liberal media or by the professionals in the transgender industrial complex. This in itself is a sign that we are in the grip of a mass hysteria.
The passing of laws and creation of practices without examination of facts at the behest of activists and advocates.
Activist parents of children in the ritual abuse cases got a flurry of laws passed letting children younger than 14 testify out of court, children younger than 8 testify by hearsay through their parents (under the unproven presumption that the children would be traumatized), and giving more power to prosecutors. (p. 98-99).
After trials without convictions and convictions being overturned for prosecutorial misconduct, additional laws were passed to make prosecution of these cases easier. In California, Proposition 115 in 1990 admitted hearsay evidence from parents and eliminated preliminary hearings after a grand jury indictment. Significantly, the exonerations from many of the charges in the McMartin School case were a result of jurists seeing video of the questioning of the children (p. 208). These new laws eliminated that opportunity and made it harder for the innocent to defend themselves. Instead of admitting the lack of physical evidence and the inconsistencies in the stories of both children and adults that should have thoroughly discredited the prosecution, steps were taken to make such cases successful in the absence of actual evidence.
Likewise, laws have been quickly and thoughtlessly passed at the behest of transactivists, doctors, psychologists, and parents invested in the transgender narrative and the industry which has grown up around it. Laws in nine state and many municipalities have been promulgated that forbid psychologists from doing anything but affirming a self diagnosis of transgenderism. These laws are invariably framed as banning conversion therapy for gays, but all include the ban on a psychologist questioning a minor about a transgender self diagnosis. Policies are in place at many schools forbidding teachers to communicate with parents if their child is using a different name or pronouns in school. In Ontario, a child's gender identity is one of the conditions the state considers when deciding if a child is abused. These are examples of laws and policies that are meant to facilitate, without any objective studies of gender dysphoria and its treatment, the permanent alteration of bodies, while protecting the absolute sanctity, infallibility, and unchangeableness of the minds of both children and adults, but especially children.
One medical technique that is especially troubling in this regard is the use of puberty blockers such as Lupron to give children time to "decide" if they are really transgender. Lupron prevents children from going through puberty. Studies have shown that the great majority of children with gender dysphoria have the distress resolve on its own when they go through puberty, thus eliminating the need for surgical and drug interventions. However, essentially all children given puberty blockers move on to receive the drug and surgical treatments for sex reassignment. Taking puberty blockers practically guarantees that a young person will continue identifying as transgender by preventing the natural maturation which would allow the dysphoria to resolve on its own in most cases. Thus, transgender advocates cement their claims and practices at great cost to the future health, fertility, and sexual responsiveness of their patients.
Any criticism is vigorously protested
A newspaper criticizing the prosecution of the McMartin case resulted in parents protesting at the office. (p. 102)
News media skepticism during the McMartin trials resulted in an important meeting with two parent groups Affirming Children's Truth and We Believe the Children to "denounce society's denial of child sexual abuse." Journalist John Jackson told the audience "Public opinion, not the law will be the deciding factor in the McMartin case....as guardians of your children's truth, you must mobilize public opinion" (p. 153). Notice that facts do not need to be addressed at all, society at large is required to simply affirm any claims of sexual and/or ritual abuse.
On social media and in the liberal media, any questioning of the current transgender narrative is quickly attacked. This is especially apparent in the use of the term "TERF" by transgender activists. This term is thrown at anyone who dares to so much as question any of the tenets of transgender ideology. Social media (and private accounts) are full of violent threats made against any who ask questions. Such rape and death threats are frequently accompanied by displays of victimhood by transactivists, for instance citing how many transgender people have been murdered and how many of them are "literally" being killed by such questions. Claims are frequently advanced by transgender activists that transgender people are murdered more than any other group and have the highest suicide rate of any group. Such claims cannot stand up to scrutiny. See data on murder rates here, and a discussion of suicide here, but are not questioned by the mainstream media. Attacks on, or murder of transgender people is invariably reported as a hate crime. The complete lack of context in mainstream media reports is a sign that media reports advocate for and repeat transgender activist talking points. For instance, they leave out that the murderer of transwoman Rayquann Jernigan was also transgender and the shooting took place in the context of warfare between two transgender gangs. Here is a case in which the initial assailant is a transwoman who attacked a black girl and posted video of her attack on the Internet, yet left wing media only reported the revenge attack against this transwoman by members of the girl's family.
The Reagan era was a time when conservative Christians gained a lot of political power, and the protection of children was one of their mainstays. Feminist critiques of race and class and how these affected women's lives in terms of rape were replaced with the more palatable MPD accounts which blamed each woman's problems on her individual history of childhood trauma and sexual abuse.
It was a time when conservative Christians and radical feminists joined forces to fight pornography, a tactic which, according to Beck, increased the power of the right while doing little for the influence of the feminists. (p.131-139).
Beck sees the MPD phenomenon, which appeared mostly among white middle class women, as indicative of a backlash against feminism's gains and the ability of women to choose roles outside that of the traditional homemaker, while serving to hide the real adult stresses in women's lives. It also made these women childlike victims instead of powerful political agents (p. 233- 234)
Mainstream feminism jumped on board. MS Magazine published a cover story "BELIEVE IT! Cult Ritual Abuse Exists. One Woman's Story. (p. 236). Pamela Freyd, founder of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation formed to counter the disinformation of MPD, wrote to MS "Repressed Memory Therapy is incredibly lucrative for therapists....Families are being destroyed by this nonsense..." (p. 237).
Feminism's demands for an equal rights amendment and for women to be able to work outside the home and have access to child care and other services that help them could be cut off by a conservative social agenda that makes child sexual abuse at daycare the punishment for women working out of the home. Now, women are arrested for letting children play in a park or leaving children alone for even a short while. Beck writes: "Some ritual abuse skeptics have explained the panic as a simple failure of reason, a sudden and violent collapse of the country's ability to distinguish fact from fiction. Those failures were real, and it is important, from a forensic and judicial perspective, to identify and remedy them. However it hardly explains anything at all to point out that people got their facts wrong The more pressing question has to do with the source and cause of this eagerness to mistake a decade-long waking nightmare for the truth." (p. 268)
Whether we believe Beck's larger social analysis or not, we are again seeing a situation in which radical feminists are finding allies in their fight against transgender doctrine and practice on the Christian Right. Hands Across the Aisle is one such alliance and this panel discussion sponsored by the conservative Heritage Foundation resulted from this coming together. This alliance is controversial in Feminist communities, with some feminists saying that the Right is the only place they are given support and a voice on the transgender issue and others pointing out that in most ways the Christian Right is opposed to the rights of women, the most obvious place of disagreement being abortion.
Anti-gay aspects of child sexual
In the McMartin case and another gay teen accused of child sexual abuse even though evidence pointed to other men, Beck sees this as part of the political conservative's agenda (p. 200-202).
Police officers were trained in child sexual abuse, especially in the fact that both children and adults could repress their knowledge.
These false confessions were more likely if police or authority figures assured people that the evidence against them was overwhelming (p. 190).